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# Types of Motion

Physics | 7-14 yrs | Interactive

### What is the study of mechanics?

The relationship between forces, motion and energy is known as mechanics. It is through the study of mechanics that we are able to understand and calculate various important constants and constraints in developing mechanical machinery and tools.

## What is motion?

Motion maybe described as the movement of an object or body over distance in time, or it maybe described as the change in position of a body or an object in time.

A body cannot move or come to a halt, if it is already in movement, unless it is acted upon by an external force. This is known as inertia.

## What are the laws of motion?

Newton’s three Laws of Motion define the frame work for motion of bodies with mass. It is defined in a 3 dimensional co-ordinate system, that states the position of the body in either a stationary state or in movement.

### Newton’s First Law of Motion

Newton’s First Law of Motion states that, a body at rest or in motion, will continue to be at rest or be in movement, unless acted upon by an external force. This means that things cannot move or change direction on their own. This is known as inertia.

### Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that a force acting on a body is equal to the mass of the body, times the acceleration of the body. It means that if the force acts on a stationary body, it will move at the speed the force has acted on it. If it is already in movement, it will either slow down, speed up, or change direction depending on the force that has been applied.

### Newton’s Third Law of Motion

Newton’s Third Law of Motion states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. This law describes that forces work in pairs. When a force acts on an object, an equal force is applied back by the object.

## What are the different types of motions?

### 1. Translatory Motion

Translatory motion maybe described as the movement of an object in a straight line, like a vehicle travelling on a road or an object falling down due to the gravitational pull of the earth.

### 2. Rotational Motion

Rotational motion is the movement of an object, in a circular path along a fixed point as the appointed centre and the movement is along the circumference of the path, at a regular distance from the centre.

### 3. Periodic Motion

A motion repeated in equal intervals of time, like a rocking chair or the oscillation of pendulum in a clock.

## Degrees of freedom

Degrees of Freedom is an important aspect in the study of mechanics, to determine the latitude/variable of movement in space of a mechanism. It is primarily used in robotics and kinematics to create simulated movements in a defined axis.

## What is kinematics?

Kinematics is the science which studies motion of objects. It is used in astro-physics to study the path of celestial bodies, in mechanics to study the possible movement of a joint and assembly of creating moving objects.

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